Energy Efficiency Rules of Thumb
Published on: October 19, 2019

Energy Efficiency experts are always asked to put together indicative projections before embarking on detailed energy analyses.  These typical values shown on this post may help you put together a quick analysis for your customers

Note: Do not assume these values to be LAWS. They are only typical values, which SHOULD BE VERIFIED for each application.

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General Information

Air Movement 6 ACH
Ventilation Rate 1 cfm/sf
5 cfm/person
Ventilation Rate 5 CFM/person
Fan Energy 1000-1500 CFM/hp
Electric Motors 0.75 kW/hp
Lighting T12s: 1.2 W/SQFT
T8s:  0.8 W/SQFT
LEDs:  0.4 W/SQFT
LEDs use 50% of CFLs
Chiller Size 300-600 ft2/ton
Ton 12,000 BTU/ton
Chilled Water 2.4 GPM/ton (10° rise)
Condenser Water 3 GPM/ton (10° rise)
Chiller Input Air Cooled Chillers: 1 kW/ton
Water Cooled Chillers: 0.6 kW/ton
Most Efficient Water Cooled Chillers: 0.35 kW/ton
Chillers & Pumps & Towers .9-1.0 kW/ton
Absorbers 18 lbs steam/ton
Boiler Horsepower 33,479 BTU/hr = 9.8 kW
Rebuilt Systems Design 55°F supply air
30°-40° rise reheat coils
Dual Duct & Multizone Design 55° cold deck
70-105° hot deck – with ODA Reset Schedule
VAV 55°F cooling
10% box leakage flow
40-50% minimum fan volume
People Load 450 BTU/person/hr
People Density Office: 140  ft2/person
Theater: 14 ft2/person
Heat Transmission See ASHRAE Handbook of Fundamentals
Glass 1 BTU/ft2/°F
Good Wall 0.1 BTU/ft2/°F
Masonry Wall 0.15-0.3 BTU/ft2/°F
Thin Poor Wall 0.25-0.5 BTU/ft2/°F
Overall Building 0.15-0.5 BTU/ft2/°F
Infiltration 0.5-1.5 ACH without Building Pressurization

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Chiller Efficiencies

(including condenser power > 150 tons)
EER COP kW/ton
ASHRAE Standard 90.1 1999 9.6 2.8 1.26
Good 9.9 2.9 1.21
Best 10.6 3.1 1.13
(>300 ton centrifugal compressor)
 EER COP kW/ton
ASHRAE Standard 90.1 1999 16.7 4.9 0.72
Good 18.5 5.4 0.65
Best 26.7 7.8 0.45

We borrowed this list from Abraxis Engineering.

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